- Qualities of a good driver
- What is highway hypnosis?
- What is 2 seconds rule?
- Can 2-second rule be reflected in numbers?
- What should be the speed of driving?
- How to drive during fog?
- Precautions during rain
- What is hydroplane?
- Driving in high winds
- Precautions during winter in Hills
- What to do in case of Equipment Failure?
- Precautions during night driving
- What if a fire breaks out in car?
- Precautions during water accidents
- Use of a cellular phone during driving
- What if electricity falls on your vehicle?
- What is Carbon Monoxide Poisoning?
1. Qualities of a good driver
Ans : A driver must concentrate on the road and drive defensively .
- CONCENTRATION : Operating a vehicle safely demands that the driver concentrate on driving. The person should be rested, calm and not under the influence of alcohol or other drugs.
- DEFENSIVE DRIVING : Plan ahead for the unexpected. Always be prepared to react to the other driver. Do not expect the other driver to do what you think he or she should do. Do not think you know what he or she is going to do. If you cannot avoid a crash, remain calm and try to choose the least dangerous situation. For example, running into a ditch is less dangerous than a head-on collision. Also, your chances of survival are greater if your vehicle is in good mechanical condition.
2. What is highway hypnosis?
Ans : One of the greatest hazards of roadway driving is drowsiness or "highway hypnosis." Lack of sleep or fatigue impact the ability to safely drive the vehicle. When taking a long trip, avoid drowsiness by stopping frequently to drink coffee, exercise or nap. Exercise your eyes by reading road signs or shifting the focus of your eyes to different parts of the road. Make sure the driver is properly rested.
3. What is 2 seconds rule?
Ans : Following a vehicle too closely is called "tail-gating." Use the 2-second rule to determine a safe following distance. Select a fixed object on the road ahead such as a sign, tree or overpass. When the vehicle ahead of you passes the object, count "one-thousand-one, one-thousand-two." You should not reach the object before you count to one-thousand-two. If you do, you are following too closely. Most rear end collisions are caused by the vehicle in back following too closely.
The two-second rule also applies to the speed when one is on a good road and during good weather conditions. If the road and/or weather conditions are not good, increase your distance to a four or five-second count. If you are being tail-gated, move to another lane or slowly pull off the road and allow the vehicle to pass.
4. Can 2-second rule be reflected in numbers?
Approximate Feet Vehicle
Will Travel in 1 Second
2 Second Rule
74 ft. back
132 ft. back
5. What should be the speed of driving?
Ans : A driver should use common sense when driving. Driving too fast or too slowly may create a dangerous situation . Regardless of the posted speed limit, weather and traffic conditions may make it necessary to drive more slowly. Your speed should be adjusted for the conditions and match the flow of traffic, as long as it does not surpass the maximum posted speed.
6. How to drive during fog?
Ans : It is the best not to drive in fog. Otherwise, you ought to take the following precautions:
- Slow down. If you see headlights or tail-lights, slow down even more. A driver may be driving in the center of the road or may be stopped or barely moving.
- Drive with your headlights set on dim, or use fog lights.
- Do not overdrive your headlights. Stay within the limits of your vision. You may have to stop suddenly. If the fog is too dense, pull off the road and stop. Do not drive at 5 or 10 Km per hour.
- Use your turn signal long before you turn and brake early when you approach a stop to warn other drivers.
7. Precautions during rain
Ans : When rain begins to fall lightly, water, dust, oil and leaves cause the road to become slippery. When this happens, increase your following distance. Take special care on curves and turns and while braking. Your headlights must be ON when operating your wipers. Parking lights should not be used because it creates illusion.
8. What is hydroplane?
Ans : When rain begins to fall heavily, your tyres may "hydroplane." This means the tyres are riding on a layer of water and not on the road. Avoid hydroplaning by slowing down. If you skid while hydroplaning, try to regain control of the vehicle. Otherwise, release the accelerator and ride out the skid.
9. Driving in high winds?
Ans : Wind can be a difficult problem for all drivers. Wind is especially difficult for drivers of trucks and other heavy vehicles. In high winds, you should reduce your speed. Heavy rain often accompanies high winds. You should be alert to wet or slippery areas and plan for those conditions.
10. Precautions during winter in Hills
Ans : Winter is the most difficult driving season due to many reasons, including ice and snow at Hill Stations, lower temperatures and fewer daylight hours. During these condiotions you should:
- Drive slower and increase your following distance. Road conditions may vary depending upon the sun, shade or road surface.
- Remove all snow and ice from your vehicle. Clear all windows, and do not start driving until your windshield is defrosted and clear. Be sure you have non-freezing windshield washer liquid and that your headlights and tail-lights are visible.
- Be sure your vehicle is maintained properly. Lights, brakes, windshield wipers, defrosters, radiator and other parts should be in good working order.
- Use snow tyres and/or chains (where allowed). Snow tyres give you extra traction, and chains increase safety on snow or icepacked roads. Neither tyres nor chains allow you to drive on bad roads at normal speeds.
- Start slowly. Gentle braking, in slow, steady strokes, helps you find out how much traction you have. Begin braking early when you come to an intersection or a stop.
- Approach bridges, shaded spots, overpasses and turns slowly. They may remain icy after the rest of the road is clear and dry.
- Plan your winter driving. Carry a blanket, food and other survival equipment, such as a shovel, in your vehicle in case you become stranded. If you become stranded, remain in your vehicle. Run your engine only for brief times, and open your window to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning. Make sure your vehicle tailpipe is free of snow and debris.
11. What to do in case of Equipment Failure?
Ans : Crashes often happen when equipment fails. Your most important aid is remaining calm. Equipment failures may include:
- BLOWOUTS: A thumping sound may be a warning of a blowout. If this happens, ease your foot off the accelerator and keep a firm grasp on the steering wheel. Do not brake suddenly. Pull safely off the road and check your tyres.
- LOSS OF A WHEEL: React as you would with a blowout. Ease off the accelerator and pull off the road.
- STEERING FAILURE: If you suddenly have no control of the steering wheel, ease your foot off the accelerator. Turn on your emergency flashers and allow your vehicle to come to a slow stop. Brake very gently to prevent your vehicle from spinning.
- BRAKE FAILURE: If your brake pedal suddenly sinks to the floor, pump it to build pressure. If that does not work, use your emergency or parking brake. To slow down, shift your vehicle into a lower gear.
- HEADLIGHT FAILURE: If your headlights fail suddenly, try your emergency flashers, parking lights and / or turn signals. Pull off the road. If your lights begin to dim, drive to a service station or pull off the road and seek help.
- STUCK Acceleraor: If the accelerator becomes stuck, hook your toe under it to free it. If it does not become free, shift your vehicle into neutral and brake gently to slow down. If you have power steering or a locking steering wheel, do not turn off the ignition, you will lose either your power steering or your ability to steer.
- BLOCKED VISION: If for any reason your vision becomes blocked, roll down the side window to see. Turn on your emergency flashers and then pull your vehicle off the road.
12. Precautions during night driving
Ans : Night driving is difficult because things may appear differently than in daylight. Also, glare from lights may interfere with vision. Courtesy and common sense should be used when driving at night. Remember:
- Never overdrive your headlights. Always keep them clean and aimed properly. Use them at dusk and dawn. Bright lights must be dimmed 500 ft. before meeting an oncoming vehicle or 300 ft. before passing a vehicle.
- If street lights cause a lot of glare, dim your dashboard lights and use your sun visor. Avoid using any other light inside your vehicle.
- Roadway signs are more difficult to see at night.
- Use edge lines and center lines of the roadway as guides.
- Do not stop on the roadway. If you must stop, carry and use a red warning light.
13. What if a fire breaks out in car?
Ans : If smoke appears, pull off the road. Turn off the engine, move away from the vehicle and call the fire department. Vehicle fires can be very dangerous. Do not fight the fire yourself.
14. Precautions during water accidents
Ans : If your vehicle runs off the roadway into water but does not sink right away, try to escape through a window. Because of differences in water pressure, you may not be able to open your car door. If your vehicle does sink, move to the back seat area where an air pocket usually forms. Take a deep breath and exit from a rear window.
15. Use of cellular phone during driving?
Ans : Use of cellular phone is prohibited. If it is important, stop the car and then talk.
16. What if an electricity falls on your vehicle?
Ans : If power lines fall on your vehicle, the danger of electrical shock exists. You should remain in your vehicle until help arrives. However, if fire is imminent, you must jump clear of the vehicle. DO NOT ALLOW ANY PART OF YOUR BODY TO TOUCH THE VEHICLE AND THE GROUND AT THE SAME TIME.
17. What is Carbon Monoxide Poisoning?
Ans : Carbon Monoxide is a deadly poison. Symptoms of its poisoning are weariness, yawning, dizziness, nausea, headache and ringing in the ears. You can prevent it by regularly checking the exhaust system. Lleave the windows partially open when starting the engine. Never run the engine in your garage.
Dr K K Aggarwal
Executive Vice Chairman
Heart Care Foundation of India